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Statement of Nepal Communist Party (Mashal) On Kalapani, Lipulekha and Limpiyadhura

NCP (Mashal) (Nepal Communist Party (Mashal)), 05/19/2020


India encroached Nepal’s land by opening a road via Nepal’s Lipulekh on May 8, undermining Nepal’s territorial integrity and sovereignty at a time when the entire world is under the grip of Covid 19 pandemic. India’s this belligerent act violates all international laws regarding boundary disputes because India has in the past acknowledged the land all the way from Kalapani to Lipulekh disputed one, though as per the Sughauli treaty signed between the then British India and Nepal Government the entire strip of land across the Kali river is Nepal’s territory.   

It is worth remembering that India issued new political map on November 2nd, 2019, putting Nepal’s land of about 372.37 square kilometer from Limpiadhura to Kalapani in its territory. Kalapani lies at the western tri-boarder point where Nepal, India and China meet. The Mahakali River originates from Limpiadhura, Kalapani. According to the 1816 Sugauli treaty (Article 5) signed between the then East India Company and Nepal, the river demarcates India and Nepal. With this map, India now officially claims the Kalapani area as its own, ignoring and disregarding the past treaty and international laws.

It is this act of encroachment from India that has put Nepal in great risk of losing its own precious piece of land. Following a humiliating defeat in the Sino-Indian War of 1962, Indian troops entered Kalipani of Nepal and built military outposts. Ever since India has gradually intensified its occupation, and now the recent Indian act has created public outrage in Nepal. Nepal had protested against India’s act of legitimizing its claim on a revised national map that includes the entire area of Kalapani as a part of India’s Uttarakhanda State.

As during the issuance of new map by India, now too streets of Kathmandu are angry over the construction of road by India within the Nepali territory. The Nepal government is still hesitant to raise the issue with India with a strong determination, though it has sent a diplomatic note to India this time too. The present government and its Prime Minister have categorically said that Kalapani is Nepal’s territory and they will solve the issue with India through diplomatic channels, yet the government has failed to achieve any concrete result. The president of Nepal on her address giving to joint session parliament on May 15, 2020 has categorically claim that Kalapani, Lipulekha and Limpiyadhura are parts of Nepal and that view has been indoors by parliaments on May 19, 2020.

India has acknowledged the receipt of Nepal’s letter, and it has given no firm date to enter into dialogue with Nepal on Kalapani dispute citing the reason of Covid – 19 pandemic. Moreover, India’s Foreign Ministry has issued a counter statement with a claim that “the road follows the pre-existing route used by the pilgrims of the Kailash Mansarovar Yatra” is within geographical area of India. The Commander- in-Chief of India also has issued statement of similar type.

It is to be remembered that late Indian Prime minister A. B. Vajpayee in a 1997 visit, and current Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his 2014 visit, agreed to find the solution to the dispute over Kalapani through bilateral diplomatic dialogue, but the Indian government now maintains that its new map is accurate and it is building road in its own territory.

Nepal is threatened by a comparatively superior power, India. India has shown little regard to international law, and Nepal has been the victim of aggression from a superior power. In fact, Kalapani has become a textbook case of an aspiring great power military occupying a strategic territory of a smaller neighbor. India has occupied Nepal’s territory for the last six decades before officially including it in its national map and now building road in Nepal’s land.

The strategic value of occupying Kalapani for India is in large part to gain an advantage against China. It is also notable that India and China in the past have entered a treaty over the use of Lipulekh for their trade route in the absence of Nepal. However, Nepal has categorically said that Lipulekh cannot be the junction between India and China without consent of Nepal.

Another reason behind India’s occupation of this area is its accessibility compared to other surrounding mountains providing an excellent location for an Indian military base.

Water experts of Nepal and Britain in 1916 had publicized the fact that Kutiyangdi River flowing Limpiadhura is the Mahakali River. All maps issued from 1818 to 1856 testify that the same river is the origin of Mahakali River. All these proofs are with Nepal, but India has distorted facts and figures, exemplifying its hegemony over Nepal. Nepal had objected to China and India when in 2015 they reached an understanding to make Lipulake as the joint point for trade between two countries without consulting Nepal.

Nepal’s Government should take strong measures to take back the occupied land as the people of all sectors have given support to Nepal’s stance. However, the present government has been quite slow in pursuing the matter with urgency. We want the government to act firmly and decisively. If India doesn’t come to the table of talk, Nepal should internationalize the issue taking it to the SAARC, UN and international forum. Maps issued before and after 1860 Sugauli Treaty are in the Library of Congress, Washington, and British Library, London, and in the libraries of China, India, and Russia. Now in Nepal too, some individuals have taken the copies of those maps to be given to the Nepal’s government. The fact that the river originating from Limiadhura is Kalinadi is supported also on the basis of water science. Even the census taken in 1964 also proves that the entire Kalapani is a Nepal’s land. In the 1958 election, the people of Kalapani had voted for the candidates of different parties of Nepal. The voters list of that year is still safe as a proof to support Nepal’s claim. All these proofs and documents are sufficient to give counter response to India in order to get back the land occupied by India nullifying all international norms of relations.

The Nepal government on 18 May, 2020 has decided to published in new map of Nepal showing that the line occupied by India, Kalapani, Lipulekha and Limpiyadhura are parts of Nepal. We thank the government of Nepal for its bold step. But still we have to struggle hard to get back the line capture by Indian Imperialism.

We appeal to all just loving people, parties or organization of the whole world to support the just struggle of Nepal for nationality and sovereignty.


 19 May, 2020


Mohan Bikram Singh

General Sectary

N.C.P. (Mashal)

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